Date of publication: 2017-07-08 20:58
Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title , Authors and Affiliation , Abstract , Introduction , Methods , Results , Discussion , Acknowledgments , and Literature Cited , which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section.
The Materials and Methods section is a vital component of any formal lab report. This section of the report gives a detailed account of the procedure that was followed in completing the experiment(s) discussed in the report. Such an account is very important, not only so that the reader has a clear understanding of the experiment, but a well written Materials and Methods section also serves as a set of instructions for anyone desiring to replicate the study in the future. Considering the importance of reproducible results in science, it is quite obvious why this second application is so vital.
Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions.
So why are you writing this research report? The practical answer is 8775 Because the teacher assigned it, 8776 but that 8767 s classroom thinking. Generally speaking, people investigating some scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the rest of the scientific world to report their findings, particularly if these findings add to or contradict previous ideas. The people reading such reports have two primary goals:
This seems a fairly typical IELTS General Training Task 6 writing question. Answering the question in a way that will get you a good Task Fulfilment grade needs a number of things for you to do.
You need to take these exceptions and divergences into account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. For obvious reasons, your readers will doubt your authority if you (deliberately or inadvertently) overlook a key piece of data that doesn 8767 t square with your perspective on what occurred. In a more philosophical sense, once you 8767 ve ignored evidence that contradicts your claims, you 8767 ve departed from the scientific method. The urge to 8775 tidy up 8776 the experiment is often strong, but if you give in to it you 8767 re no longer performing good science.
Coherence and Cohesion These two are interrelated which is why they are done together. Cohesion is how your writing fits together. Does your writing with its ideas and content flow logically? Coherence is how you are making yourself understood and whether the reader of your writing understands what you are saying. An example of bad coherence and cohesion would be as follows:
Instead of: An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured.
Write: The rats ate more and gained weight.
You will necessarily make reference to the findings of others in order to support your subheadings , if need be, to help organize your presentation. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results.
What are the results ? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question. In general, the answer is the key result.
Armed with a full quiver of brainstorming techniques and facing sheets of jotted ideas, bulleted subtopics, or spidery webs relating to your paper, what do you do now?
Follow the structure of the journal article. Evaluate each section of the article Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each section. Use the answers to the questions in Evaluate the Text to develop this section.
If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me. Thanking you in advance for your help, I look forward to hearing from you soon.
First of all, in English we often end letters before the sign off with certain phrases. These can be included in most letters and will make your letter seem realistic and polished. For a formal letter, you could use:
6. This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened t hat goes in th e Discussion.