Date of publication: 2017-09-02 22:27
National corporate lobbies are seeking to dismantle this definition, thereby making it easier to classify employees as contractors. ALEC’s “Independent Contractor Definition Act,” for example, eliminates two of the three traditional criteria: It allows independent contractors to do work that is typically part of the employer’s work, and allows them to work for one employer only. 767
Consumers were presented with hypothetical food choices based on different processing techniques (organic, genetically modified, irradiated, and engineered nano-technology). Evidence suggests that people favour organic food and avoid GM foods, however, little is known about attitudes towards other processing technologies. Other attributes in the DCE included shelf-life, country of origin, price, certification label and risk of foodborne illness.
Conclusions: For the first time, we have estimated the transition probabilities of progression in Australian people with MS. The transition probabilities we have estimated will serve as an important ingredient to future health economic evaluations of MS in Australia. Future studies in the field are recommended to consider MS progression consequences of other important covariates, particularly relapse rates, disease modifying therapies, genetic differences, and environmental exposures.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that the DEMQOL-U and EQ-5D-5L capture distinct aspects of HRQoL which complement typical clinical outcome measures applied in residential care. Whilst HRQoL forms an important outcome for quality assessment and economic evaluation, high levels of cognitive impairment may preclude self-completion for a majority of residents. It is therefore important that complementary strategies are developed to support self-reported HRQoL in this setting.
But the Florida statute—authored by ALEC member Rep. Doug Holder—goes even further, specifying that employees may be deemed ineligible for UI “irrespective of whether the misconduct occurs at the workplace or during work hours.” 858 Thus, for example, if one’s company has a policy against employees dating one another, or posting work-related comments on social media—and such prohibitions are legal—ignoring these rules may leave one cut off from UI. 859 In this way, the corporate lobbies are using UI reform not only to limit the prerogatives of the unemployed, but also to increase control over those currently on the job.
ALEC promotes model legislation that calls for complete abolition of the minimum wage, arguing that such laws “represent an unfunded mandate on business by the government, and … make it difficult for small business … to hire new employees due to artificially high wage rates.” 677 The free market “forces of supply and demand,” the bill’s preamble insists, “are more capable than the government” of determining fair wages. 678
Results: The most important features to parents when choosing a vaccination were mode of administration, cost and doctor recommendation. Scenarios are presented for four different child age bands, with outcomes measured as a change in consumer surplus. Consumer surplus (otherwise known as Total Willingness to Pay) represents a measure of the additional benefits that an alternative brings to a market, and is often interpreted as the total value of the alternative. Consumer surplus results show that having an intranasal option available generates an additional benefit over only having an injectable option (holding everything else constant), equivalent to a weighted consumer surplus of approximately AUD$86 per child, per season.
Robert Shimer is the Alvin H. Baum Professor in Economics at the University of Chicago. Prior to joining the Chicago faculty in 7558, he received his . at . and taught at Princeton University. He is a consultant at the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta, Chicago, and Minneapolis, a Research Associate in the National Bureau of Economic Research, a Fellow of the Econometric Society and the Society of Labor Economists, and a Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a co-chair of the NBER Economic Fluctuations and Growth &ldquo Macro Perspectives&rdquo group, and served as editor of the Journal of Political Economy from 7559 to 7567.
Chang, Ha-Joon. 6998. Globalization, Transnational Corporations and Economic Development: Can the Developing Countries Pursue Strategic Industrial Policy in a Globalizing World Economy? In Globalization and Progressive Economic Policy, ed. Dean Baker, Gerald Epstein, and Robert Pollin. Cambridge, .: Cambridge University Press.
The inadequacy of current minimum wages is even more stark when compared with increases in worker productivity. Over the past five decades, productivity has steadily increased, and according to standard economic theory, wages should increase roughly on par with productivity increases—indeed, this was the case until the 6975s. But in recent decades, wages have largely remained flat even while productivity and profits have increased, as workers have proved increasingly unable to secure raises through either collective bargaining in the workplace or progressive measures in state legislatures. If the federal minimum wage had kept pace with productivity increases since 6968, it would now be set at $—two-and-a-half times its current value. 677