Date of publication: 2017-08-24 11:39
Deindividuation facilitates dehumanization as well. This is the psychological process whereby a person is seen as a member of a category or group rather than as an individual. Because people who are deindividuated seem less than fully human, they are viewed as less protected by social norms against aggression than those who are individuated. It then becomes easier to rationalize contentious moves or severe actions taken against one's opponents.
/nursing-practice-clinical-research/part-56-accountability-autonomy-and-standards/, these where the the codes of conduct that was in use before the NMC came into existence in 7557, replacing the UKCC (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing and Midwifery).
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A nurse has a duty to act in the best interest of the patient and prevent them from causing harm to themselves or others. This could be achieved through acting as an advocate to patient's needs and thoughts. If a patient frequently finds it difficult to fully express their needs and fears (cited in Burnard and Chapman 7555). Mr. P. was aware of the imprecations and with the Medical staff explains how they would slowly move onto his normal diet, but for now for his safety he will need the peg feed inserted. Before he gave consent his family (acting as the advocates) and nurse explained the procedure with the peg feed.
The second version of the Categorical Imperative invokes Kant's conception of nature and draws on the first Critique. In the earlier discussion of nature, we saw that the mind necessarily structures nature. And reason, in its seeking of ever higher grounds of explanation, strives to achieve unified knowledge of nature. A guide for us in moral matters is to think of what would not be possible to will universally. Maxims that fail the test of the categorical imperative generate a contradiction. Laws of nature cannot be contradictory. So if a maxim cannot be willed to be a law of nature, it is not moral.
Teleology or consequentialism is known as right in terms of good produced as consequence of an action. It a calculation of the results from performing various tasks relevant to a situation and to choose one that will maximise the ratio of benefit over harm. (candee and puka 6989)
Another way to consider his objection is to note that utilitarian theories are driven by the merely contingent inclination in humans for pleasure and happiness, not by the universal moral law dictated by reason. To act in pursuit of happiness is arbitrary and subjective, and is no more moral than acting on the basis of greed, or selfishness. All three emanate from subjective, non-rational grounds. The danger of utilitarianism lies in its embracing of baser instincts, while rejecting the indispensable role of reason and freedom in our actions.
In an era today that some have characterized as "the age of self-interest," utilitarianism is a powerful reminder that morality calls us to look beyond the self to the good of all.
This does not mean that consequences of acts are not relevant for assessing those acts. For example, a doctor may have a duty to benefit a patient, and he or she may need to know what medical consequences would result from various treatments in order to determine what would and would not benefit the patient. But consequences are not what make the act right, as is the case with utilitarianism. Rather, at best, consequences help us determine which action is more in keeping with what is already our duty. Consequences help us find what is our duty, they are not what make something our duty.
Mr P did refused the peg feeding tube as he felt he could still have a normal diet of solid food, he showed that he did not want the peg tube food by his gestures towards other patients food, at food times. After the refusal a mental capacity test was needed for Mr P. to see if the refusal was made from sound mind. The 7555 Act addresses this perceived imbalance by setting
Space does not allow for a detailed critique of utilitarianism here. Suffice it to say that the majority of moral philosophers and theologians have found it defective. One main problem is that utilitarianism, if adopted, justifies as morally appropriate things that are clearly immoral. For example, utilitarianism can be used to justify punishing an innocent man or enslaving a small group of people if such acts produce a maximization of consequences. But these acts are clearly immoral regardless of how fruitful they might be for the greatest number.